Some cases may be related to the use of poorly sterilized needles by medical
practitioners in some countries as well as folk medicine and cultural
practices that involve skin piercing.
Alternative medical procedures involving invasive medical procedures,
particularly those performed in non-medical settings (i.e., acupuncture),
or involving autologous blood (such as the ozone-enrichment of blood) may
transmit the hepatitis C virus. ref: “Transmission of Hepatitis C by
Ozone Enrichment of Autologous Blood,” Lancet, 1996;347:541).
A cross sectional survey of seropositivity for hepatitis C in Japan found an increased risk of hepatitis C associated with acupuncture (BMJ 2000;320:513, 19 February).